Economic Environment

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  1. Ethiopia: Doing business at the bottom of the pyrami … EC1-139-I-M

    What is it like to live and do business at the base of the pyramid? This multimedia is the second part in a series of reports from students who have spent time living, working and volunteering in Ethiopia.

    This installment focuses on the different types of businesses that exist and operate in the East African country and begins to explore both the opportunities and challenges that business owners face. Here we display the first-hand accounts from those who have spent time in large and small companies and can relay the challenges of doing business in the bottom of the pyramid.

    The students´ experiences are brought to life through images and video interviews. The conclusion posing the ultimate question: Can money be made doing business at the bottom of the pyramid?

    Academic Area:
    Economic Environment
  2. Country Investment Decision EC2-103-I-M

    Country Investment Decision is an interactive exercise in which students adopt the role of an International Fund Advisor. Students must study the data available about different countries in order to prioritize the investment options and make a final investment proposal.

    The exercise is designed so that different data sets of real countries are firstly considered individually before all the data together is taken into account to make a final proposal. The topics covered are economic indicator data, institutional data, and finally social and political risk data. At each decision stage, the student must justify their choices. A professor’s page displays graphically the evolution of decisions.

    * This material will have personalized links for each student and the professor will have the ability to see individual and aggregate responses before and during the class session.

    Academic Area:
    Economic Environment
  3. Country Investment Decision EC2-103-M

    Country Investment Decision is an interactive exercise in which students adopt the role of an International Fund Advisor. Students must study the data available about different countries in order to prioritize the investment options and make a final investment proposal.

    The exercise is designed so that different data sets of real countries are firstly considered individually before all the data together is taken into account to make a final proposal. The topics covered are economic indicator data, institutional data, and finally social and political risk data. At each decision stage, the student must justify their choices. A professor’s page displays graphically the evolution of decisions.

    * This material will have personalized links for each student and the professor will have the ability to see individual and aggregate responses before and during the class session.

    Academic Area:
    Economic Environment
  4. General Hospital Coronary Unit DO1-157-I

    This case begins by telling about what happened to a woman named Carmen when she thought she may have been having a heart attack so she called 911. After answering a number of questions, the operator transferred her call to a doctor. She had to explain her situation again and answer even more questions. Then the ambulance came, where she answered the same questions again. Next, she went to the emergency room where a different doctor asked her the same questions, some tests were done and then told her she needed an X-ray. Unfortunately, after waiting two more hours, she was told that she the tests needed to be redone because the doctor hadn’t signed the authorization for the first ones. She finally got the results and although everything was normal, she still had to be admitted for further tests. Due to a shortage of beds, she had to be moved to another hospital (General Hospital). But she still did not get a bedroom and had to go through the process of answering the same questions for a doctor and nurse again…

    Lopez Vega, a cardiac surgeon at General Hospital, and his colleagues agreed that the way patients were handled needed to be changed. In order to make improvements, they did a failure mode effect analysis in order to expose recurring errors and inefficiencies. At the end of the case, readers are asked to analyze the hospital service chain problems they saw in Carmen’s story and the process flow diagrams with the associated failure models. Then they are asked how they would apply the recommendations to eliminate or reduce the root causes of process failure.

    Academic Area:
    Operations & Supply Chain Management
  5. J. Rutz. Desarrollo de un modelo estratégico de mejo … DO1-156

    The case study describes the experience of Javier Rutz as operations director and later as general manager of NERTUS, a leading company in the sector of railway maintenance services in Spain.

    The company was founded by Spanish rail operator Renfe and Siemens, a leading train manufacturing company, to provide maintenance services for Siemens’ trains. From the beginning, NERTUS stands out for the high quality of its services and its great capacity for continuous improvement.
    Shortly after its Foundation, Javier Rutz joined the company, first as director of operations and later as general manager. During this period, the philosophy of continuous improvement reached its maximum splendor.

    After concluding a highly successful professional stage, Javier Rutz leaves the company and asks himself which is the best way to exploit his experience for his professional future: should he continue as a senior executive in another company or undertake a different challenge through his own company to provide consulting services that offer “the design and implementation of management models based on continuous improvement, with a strategic perspective?” 

    Aims to identify what are the key strategic and organizational elements that allow the successful implementation of a continuous improvement methodology. These strategic and organizational variables, such as customer orientation, company culture, leadership, transparency of information, etc., are shown throughout the case in a general way and in some examples presented by J. Rutz on NERTUS.

    Academic Area:
    Operations & Supply Chain Management
  6. J. Rutz. Developing a Strategic Continuous Improveme … DO1-156-I

    The case study describes the experience of Javier Rutz as operations director and later as general manager of NERTUS, a leading company in the sector of railway maintenance services in Spain.

    The company was founded by Spanish rail operator Renfe and Siemens, a leading train manufacturing company, to provide maintenance services for Siemens’ trains. From the beginning, NERTUS stands out for the high quality of its services and its great capacity for continuous improvement.
    Shortly after its Foundation, Javier Rutz joined the company, first as director of operations and later as general manager. During this period, the philosophy of continuous improvement reached its maximum splendor.

    After concluding a highly successful professional stage, Javier Rutz leaves the company and asks himself which is the best way to exploit his experience for his professional future: should he continue as a senior executive in another company or undertake a different challenge through his own company to provide consulting services that offer “the design and implementation of management models based on continuous improvement, with a strategic perspective?” 

    Aims to identify what are the key strategic and organizational elements that allow the successful implementation of a continuous improvement methodology. These strategic and organizational variables, such as customer orientation, company culture, leadership, transparency of information, etc., are shown throughout the case in a general way and in some examples presented by J. Rutz on NERTUS.

    Academic Area:
    Operations & Supply Chain Management
  7. DIRIGIENDO EMPRESAS EN ENTORNO GLOBALES. INTRODUCCIÓ … EC2-113

    This technical note is introductory to a course on the economic environment of businesses. It provides an overview of the main problems of the economic environment, some explanatory ideas and models and a first glance at the main macroeconomic issues: growth and the cycle, unemployment, inflation, public deficit and structural deficit. Some ideas on government intervention in the economy and the global economic environment are also presented.

    In the second part, the characteristics of the main models that are used in the analysis of the economic environment of businesses are presented and the main indicators of economic output are defined: income, expenditure, prices and population. We will start from the circular flow of income model, the version that distinguishes the goods market from the factory one as well as the macroeconomic adaptation that identifies the moment of expenditure, output and income. After defining the main variables, the various models that are usually used are briefly reviewed. Some concepts on the analysis of the datasets are provided before. At the end, a number of important clarifications are explained to avoid different economic concepts from being misunderstood.

    On the last pages, an overview of building the aggregate supply and aggregate demand model is provided. We will use it as the basis for understanding how the economy works as a whole.

    This technical note substitutes the previous ones EC2-001 "Entorno Económico: Dirigiendo Empresas en la Economía Global" and EC2-002 "Indicadores Económicos y Análisis de Coyuntura" that are no longer available.

    Academic Area:
    Economic Environment
  8. PARO, INFLACIÓN, DÉFICITS, COMPETITIVIDAD Y LARGO PL … EC2-119

    Explains the issues of the economic environment: unemployment, inflation, economic cycle, public and trade deficits and competitiveness. Also goes into some ideas about global financial crises, models used to exit them and some implications of the "new economy".

    This technical note substitutes the previous one EC2-011 "Inflación, Paro, Competitividad y el Largo Plazo" that is no longer available.

    Academic Area:
    Economic Environment
  9. DINERO, BANCOS Y POLÍTICA MONETARIA EC2-116

    This note is about the workings of the assets market, the different types of assets and focusing on money, the role of commercial and central banks. It analyzes the assets and money markets and their influence over monetary policy and interest rates. Finally it explains the different models of monetary policy, the types of financial markets and the stock-market indicators.

    This technical note substitutes the previous ones EC2-006 "El Sistema Financiero y la Creación de Dinero" and EC2-007 "El Mercado de Activos" that are no longer available.

    Academic Area:
    Economic Environment
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