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  1. Renta Fija Soberana DF2-234

    This technical note explains sovereign bonds. It consists of debt incurred by states, and hence is credit-risk free. However, it is not free of others such as market and liquidity risks. It also goes into the different types of sovereign bonds, starting with treasuries and bonds. Likewise it covers related concepts and other concepts like inflation bonds and segregable coupons.

    Academic Area:
    Finance
  2. Renta Variable DF2-235

    This technical note explains all the financial equity products to be found in Europe, but in Spain in particular.

    It starts with the public and private ordinary shares, and moves on to explain the spanish index IBEX 35, made up with 35 companies, featuring Inditex, Banco Santander, Telefonica, BBVA and Repsol among others. It also includes a detailed explanation around the preemptive subscription rights through an exercise vs. future capital increases, by reviewing the effect on the theoretical value. On the other hand, it explains the concept of preferred stock and the main differences with ordinary stock.

    It also explains other complex products such as  financial futures contracts, contract for differences and others.

    Academic Area:
    Finance
  3. Renta Fija Privada, Subordinada y Titulizaciones DF2-230

    This Technical Note references all the financial instruments of private equity.

    First, it illustrates the three main risks of these financial instruments: market risk, liquidity risk and credit risk. Additionally, it states which are the main products in the eyes of the Comisión Nacional Del Mercado de Valores (CNMV).

    Then it how, within the liabilities structure of a firm, there frequently exists a difference between senior and subordinate debt, where the main characteristic of the latter is that, faced with an asset reduction, it suffers a decrease in value after the capital but before the senior debt.

    Academic Area:
    Finance
  4. Operativa Bancaria Básica DF2-229

    En esta Nota Técnica se hace una breve introducción a la Operativa Bancaria Clásica o Tradicional.
    Primero, se explica el Mercado Interbancario, que es el ámbito donde se aplican los tipos de interés cobrados entre Bancos al financiarse.
    Adicionalmente, se muestran las fuentes básicas de ingreso de la banca, y las diferencias entre la estructura de contabilidad de una empresa no financiera y una financiera. Igualmente, se exponen los productos de Pasivo como Cuentas Corrientes, de Ahorro y Repo (Repurchase Agreement), así como también los productos de Activo como Préstamos, Factoring y Leasing. Otro tema de interés, es la forma en que las entidades financieras administran las inversiones de sus clientes, por medio de: Acciones, Bonos, Warrants/Opciones, Futuros, Contratos por Diferencias, Bonos Estructurados y Fondos de Inversión.
    Finalmente se exponen los productos de cobertura más sencillos que un Banco ofrece a sus clientes.

    Academic Area:
    Finance
  5. Derivados de tipo de cambio DF2-233

    This technical note starts with the notation used for currency exchange and goes further into methods to calculate it. Then it moves to explain the main difference between futures and options, and further into currency exchange derivatives, with their respective calls and puts. It also deals with buyer and seller tunnels, and exotic derivatives. 

    Academic Area:
    Finance
  6. Productos y Depósitos Estructurados DF2-232

    This technical note goes into the financial products known as "Structured", that are mainly notes, deposits and structured funds. This note is mainly focused on notes and deposits, that have a similar structure.

    On the other hand, explains that structured products and deposits are complex products, and have high risks for many reasons. First off, their liquidity is usually limited; their definition and the way they function are also not easy to explain and, finally, the valuation of these products usually requires mathematical and financial advanced knowledge.

    It also includes an exemplified explanation for bonds or deposit with a partial or total guarantee, exotic structured bonds and self cancelling bonds.

    Academic Area:
    Finance
  7. Product strategy: portfolio management concepts, typ … MK2-106-I

    This note introduces readers to concepts about products. It explains various definitions of what a product is, emphasizing that products are not what the producer wants them to be but how the consumer perceives them. It looks at the value hierarchy for the customer and the levels of the product (core benefit, generic product, expected product, augmented product and potential product) and then goes on to explain its physical and psychological attributes. Next, it delves into the brand emphasizing that it is one of the key elements of the commercial strategy used for products and a valuable strategic asset and then takes a look at the brand identity. Using Nike as a practical example, it introduces readers to the hierarchy of benefits and how to use the brand’s attributes to identify the final identity of the brand. It describes the differences between consumer goods, industrial goods and services and also talks about how to manage a portfolio of products using Procter & Gamble and Pantene as an example. Then it describes the stages of the product market life cycle and how it is essential for any company that wishes to remain profitable over the long term to develop new products. Looking at the Ansoff Matrix, readers are introduced to four different strategies regarding products and markets. Lastly, the note explains the BCG growth/relative market share matrix to show how to determine the strategic situation of a company’s products/markets and the AC matrix to determine the attractiveness and competitiveness of a market.

    Academic Area:
    Marketing & Communications
  8. Posicionamiento: elemento clave de la estrategia de … MK2-105

    The technical note explains the importance of the positioning strategy of the brands within the general marketing strategy of a product or a company. It also describes and analyzes the positioning as a phase in the Marketing process, the advantages of a good positioning and the common mistakes marketers run into when positioning a brand. It emphasizes segmentation as a tool for the positioning strategy.

    This material is details the process of development of the positioning and its phases. It explains stages of market definition, market segmentation, reasons for segmenting or not segmenting, segmentation criteria and differentiation.

    Academic Area:
    Marketing & Communications
  9. Consumers' purchasing behavior MK2-107-I

    This document summarizes the concepts and basic processes involved in consumer behavior, emphasizing how understanding consumers' needs benefits both consumers and marketers. Understanding consumer behavior can allow companies to develop a commercial strategy that is better matched to consumers, which will increase demand and optimize the means to generate that demand. Some of the main challenges are the variability of behavior, its changing nature, and the complexities of studying it. The note delves into how consumer behavior can be studied in a systematic and precise way by using a wide range of theoretical approaches and models and how it can be affected by factors such as environmental influences (economic, political, technological and cultural context) and marketing actions. The document outlines the various psychological factors involved in decision-making (personality, lifestyles, beliefs and attitudes, motivation, perception and learning) as well as the non-psychological ones (age, sex, location, etc.) which allow the marketer to better understand the consumers’ buying habits. It explains the basic decision-making model in depth and how consumers’ behaviors can play an active role in generating value for the company or the opposite thanks to undesired behaviors such as boycotts, complaints and negative word of mouth. It wraps up by describing how to move consumers from habit buying to decision making.

    Academic Area:
    Marketing & Communications
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