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  1. Cities, Innovation and Talent GE2-135-I

    This technical note explains the fundamentals of the ecosystem for innovation and talent and its importance for the city. We can understand the role of human capital and how important talent is for the ecosystem, where several factors converge for the generation of ideas, products, methods or processes and that encourage entrepreneurship.

    Through this document, we will be able to know what talent is and how it is associated with human capital, why talent is important to the ecosystem of innovation and economic growth of a city and what aspects are necessary for a city to have an urban ecosystem of innovation and talent.

    Academic Area:
    Entrepreneurship | Others | Innovation
  2. Positioning: a key factor in marketing strategy MK2-105-I

    The technical note explains the importance of the positioning strategy of the brands within the general marketing strategy of a product or a company. It also describes and analyzes the positioning as a phase in the Marketing process, the advantages of a good positioning and the common mistakes marketers run into when positioning a brand. It emphasizes segmentation as a tool for the positioning strategy.

    This material is details the process of development of the positioning and its phases. It explains stages of market definition, market segmentation, reasons for segmenting or not segmenting, segmentation criteria and differentiation.

    Academic Area:
    Marketing & Communications
  3. Consumers' purchasing behavior MK2-107-I

    This document summarizes the concepts and basic processes involved in consumer behavior, emphasizing how understanding consumers' needs benefits both consumers and marketers. Understanding consumer behavior can allow companies to develop a commercial strategy that is better matched to consumers, which will increase demand and optimize the means to generate that demand. Some of the main challenges are the variability of behavior, its changing nature, and the complexities of studying it. The note delves into how consumer behavior can be studied in a systematic and precise way by using a wide range of theoretical approaches and models and how it can be affected by factors such as environmental influences (economic, political, technological and cultural context) and marketing actions. The document outlines the various psychological factors involved in decision-making (personality, lifestyles, beliefs and attitudes, motivation, perception and learning) as well as the non-psychological ones (age, sex, location, etc.) which allow the marketer to better understand the consumers’ buying habits. It explains the basic decision-making model in depth and how consumers’ behaviors can play an active role in generating value for the company or the opposite thanks to undesired behaviors such as boycotts, complaints and negative word of mouth. It wraps up by describing how to move consumers from habit buying to decision making.

    Academic Area:
    Marketing & Communications
  4. Product strategy: portfolio management concepts, typ … MK2-106-I

    This note introduces readers to concepts about products. It explains various definitions of what a product is, emphasizing that products are not what the producer wants them to be but how the consumer perceives them. It looks at the value hierarchy for the customer and the levels of the product (core benefit, generic product, expected product, augmented product and potential product) and then goes on to explain its physical and psychological attributes. Next, it delves into the brand emphasizing that it is one of the key elements of the commercial strategy used for products and a valuable strategic asset and then takes a look at the brand identity. Using Nike as a practical example, it introduces readers to the hierarchy of benefits and how to use the brand’s attributes to identify the final identity of the brand. It describes the differences between consumer goods, industrial goods and services and also talks about how to manage a portfolio of products using Procter & Gamble and Pantene as an example. Then it describes the stages of the product market life cycle and how it is essential for any company that wishes to remain profitable over the long term to develop new products. Looking at the Ansoff Matrix, readers are introduced to four different strategies regarding products and markets. Lastly, the note explains the BCG growth/relative market share matrix to show how to determine the strategic situation of a company’s products/markets and the AC matrix to determine the attractiveness and competitiveness of a market.

    Academic Area:
    Marketing & Communications
  5. THE COST OF CAPITAL DF2-141-I

    This material focuses on determining the rate of return that will satisfy shareholders’ expectations and how to achieve it. It explains how to find the discount rate that represents the cost of the resources that will finance future investments and how to figure out the cost, or the WACC, by weighting the cost of debt and equity as a function of their relative importance in the company’s capital structure. In addition, it covers how to calculate the cost of debt based on the Gordon-Shapiro share pricing model and based on Sharpe’s asset valuation model using real-life examples and historical data. The case stresses that the manager must know how to add value to the investment; shareholders are entrusting the manager with their investment and expecting a higher rate of return than they could get without him. It wraps up by including an FAQ on WACC.

    Academic Area:
    Finance
  6. RATING AGENCIES PROCESS: HOW TO DEAL WITH THIS NECES … DF2-223-I

    Undoubtedly, obtaining a credit rating is one of the paramount decisions for any company to make during its entire existence as a going concern. From that moment on, not only will its corporate status be deeply modified bringing about a number of new additional requirements to comply with. Its overall relationships with its stakeholders will no longer be the same. Even the potential decision to turn back to the prior situation by relinquishing its rating and becoming unrated again, which is perfectly possible, will have meaningful implications going forward.

    This technical note is addressed to those enrolled in the Global Masters in Finance (GMIF) programs, particularly in connection with the “Introduction to the Capital Markets” subject. This paper also directly relates to all other subjects covering corporate finance and financing issues in the same program, as well as to the MBA programs and specialized finance courses.   

    Academic Area:
    Finance
  7. Managing capacity in the intermediate term: aggregat … DO2-003-I

    “Notes and cases of operations often seem to be based on the analysis of operating systems in an unchanging environment. The emphasis is placed on understanding and evaluating basic characteristics of company’s operations, working under reasonably stable conditions in terms of demand and markets. However, business works differently in practice. Markets demand competition and strategic change. Operating systems should be adapted to new strategic needs. Even in situations where strategic and competitive framework is reasonably stable (where the convenience or otherwise making of changes in a coherently designed and well managed operating system could be questioned), demand does not usually remain stable in the course of time.”
    This technical note related to strategy details planning and scheduling procedures to manage dynamic capacity.

    Academic Area:
    Operations & Supply Chain Management
  8. Do you fear an analytics-driven competitor? You shou … SI1-156-I

    Do you fear an analytics-driven competitor? This case explains why you should by discussing how companies blend analytics as part of their competitive advantage to become much stronger players. Firstly, readers are introduced to terms referring to the qualities of an analytics-driven competitor such as information-based strategy, evidence-based decision, analytics and big data. Then, the case looks at the three types of companies that are competing in analytics: companies with analytics as a core competitive advantage, companies that blend analytics with their previous competitive advantage, and startups that have a serious commitment to analytics. It also delves into different types of models such as rule models, formula models, tree models, risk management credit scoring, market mix modelling and social scoring and the model development process. The case wraps up by emphasizing that “you should fear analytics-driven competitors because they are simply becoming leaders in every field nowadays.”

    Academic Area:
    Digital Technologies & Data Science
  9. DETERMINING THE OPTIMAL CAPITAL STRUCTURE FOR A FIRM DF2-220-I

    The aim of this technical note is to provide the tools necessary to determine a firm’s optimal capital structure so that the financing function of the company contributes to creating value for shareholders. Finally, it summarizes the factors that should guide finance directors during the transition from their current financial structure to an optimal one.

    Academic Area:
    Finance
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