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  1. Estrategia de producto: conceptos, tipologías herram … MK2-106

    This note introduces readers to concepts about products. It explains various definitions of what a product is, emphasizing that products are not what the producer wants them to be but how the consumer perceives them. It looks at the value hierarchy for the customer and the levels of the product (core benefit, generic product, expected product, augmented product and potential product) and then goes on to explain its physical and psychological attributes. Next, it delves into the brand emphasizing that it is one of the key elements of the commercial strategy used for products and a valuable strategic asset and then takes a look at the brand identity. Using Nike as a practical example, it introduces readers to the hierarchy of benefits and how to use the brand’s attributes to identify the final identity of the brand. It describes the differences between consumer goods, industrial goods and services and also talks about how to manage a portfolio of products using Procter & Gamble and Pantene as an example. Then it describes the stages of the product market life cycle and how it is essential for any company that wishes to remain profitable over the long term to develop new products. Looking at the Ansoff Matrix, readers are introduced to four different strategies regarding products and markets. Lastly, the note explains the BCG growth/relative market share matrix to show how to determine the strategic situation of a company’s products/markets and the AC matrix to determine the attractiveness and competitiveness of a market.

    Academic Area:
    Marketing & Communications
  2. Positioning: a key factor in marketing strategy MK2-105-I

    The technical note explains the importance of the positioning strategy of the brands within the general marketing strategy of a product or a company. It also describes and analyzes the positioning as a phase in the Marketing process, the advantages of a good positioning and the common mistakes marketers run into when positioning a brand. It emphasizes segmentation as a tool for the positioning strategy.

    This material is details the process of development of the positioning and its phases. It explains stages of market definition, market segmentation, reasons for segmenting or not segmenting, segmentation criteria and differentiation.

    Academic Area:
    Marketing & Communications
  3. Política de distribución (I) MK2-110

    This note explains the concepts and basic functions of the distribution phase of a company, as well as the possible channels to utilize for such phase. It also goes into the relationship that develops between manufacturer and distribution companies.

    Academic Area:
    Marketing & Communications
  4. Comportamiento de compra de los consumidores MK2-107

    This document summarizes the concepts and basic processes involved in consumer behavior, emphasizing how understanding consumers' needs benefits both consumers and marketers. Understanding consumer behavior can allow companies to develop a commercial strategy that is better matched to consumers, which will increase demand and optimize the means to generate that demand. Some of the main challenges are the variability of behavior, its changing nature, and the complexities of studying it. The note delves into how consumer behavior can be studied in a systematic and precise way by using a wide range of theoretical approaches and models and how it can be affected by factors such as environmental influences (economic, political, technological and cultural context) and marketing actions. The document outlines the various psychological factors involved in decision-making (personality, lifestyles, beliefs and attitudes, motivation, perception and learning) as well as the non-psychological ones (age, sex, location, etc.) which allow the marketer to better understand the consumers’ buying habits. It explains the basic decision-making model in depth and how consumers’ behaviors can play an active role in generating value for the company or the opposite thanks to undesired behaviors such as boycotts, complaints and negative word of mouth. It wraps up by describing how to move consumers from habit buying to decision making.

    Academic Area:
    Marketing & Communications
  5. Oferta Pública de ventas DF2-228

    This technical note explains the concept of Initial Public Offering (IPO), the procedure which this offer must go through as well as the requirements for it to be carried out.

    Academic Area:
    Financial Accounting | Finance
  6. Análisis de ratios CF2-122

    When analyzing a company with regards to its economic and financial health, ratios are the most common tool. They are designed to show the relation between different accounts. Since the financial ratios are so many, it is important to set a path for the analysis to avoid getting lost in the available data.

    Academic Area:
    Financial Accounting | Finance
  7. Flujos de caja diferenciales DF2-226

    This material explains the application of discounted cash flows in the valuation of investment projects. It is explained in a brief and concise manner so the concept is made clear and is well defined for the student.

    Academic Area:
    Financial Accounting | Finance
  8. Necesidades operativas de fondos y fondo de maniobra CF2-123

    To understand a company’s capacity to create economic value it is necessary to understand, among others, the structure and composition of its current assets and liabilities, as well as its relationship with sales. The reason is that it directly influences the capital invested in operations, which is a determining factor over the ROIC. Through these lenses, it is also possible to analyze the potential default risk of the business.

    Academic Area:
    Financial Accounting
  9. POLÍTICA FISCAL Y MONETARIA Y MOVILIDAD DE CAPITALES … EC2-117

    Analyzes the relationship between the commodity and financial asset markets, going deep into the effect of monetary and fiscal policies separately, as well as the consequences of their simultaneous application. The second section goes into the interest rates between countries and the system of foreign exchange, whether fixed or flexible. It ends with an explanation of the risk premium of several countries.

    This technical note substitutes the previous ones EC2-008 "Los Mercados de Bienes y Activos: Las Políticas Fiscal y Monetaria" and EC2-009 "Las Políticas Fiscal y Monetaria en Economías Abiertas con Movimientos de Capitales" that are no longer available.

    Academic Area:
    Economic Environment & Public Affairs
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