Economic Environment

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  1. Ethiopia: Doing business at the bottom of the pyrami … EC1-139-I-M

    What is it like to live and do business at the base of the pyramid? This multimedia is the second part in a series of reports from students who have spent time living, working and volunteering in Ethiopia.

    This installment focuses on the different types of businesses that exist and operate in the East African country and begins to explore both the opportunities and challenges that business owners face. Here we display the first-hand accounts from those who have spent time in large and small companies and can relay the challenges of doing business in the bottom of the pyramid.

    The students´ experiences are brought to life through images and video interviews. The conclusion posing the ultimate question: Can money be made doing business at the bottom of the pyramid?

    Academic Area:
    Economic Environment
  2. LA DEMANDA AGREGADA Y LA POLÍTICA FISCAL EC2-114

    Explains the model of aggregate demand, fiscal policy, income, expenditures and production.

    It offers a simplistic model to determine production and income. The technical note assumes the learner understands the circular flow diagram and basic macroeconomic identities. The model is created starting from aggregate demand and considers families' consumption and investment of the private sector. Then introduces the public sector, along with some concepts of fiscal policy. It ends with the foreign sector and its implications for income.

    This technical note substitutes the previous ones EC2-003 "Los Componentes de la Demanda Agregada y la Renta de Equilibrio" and EC2-015 that are no longer available.

    Academic Area:
    Economic Environment
  3. LA OFERTA Y LA DEMANDA AGREGADAS EC2-118

    Offers the full model of aggregate supply and demand, starting with an economy of four sectors (families, companies, public sector and foreign sector) and three markets (commodities, assets and labor). Explains current economic issues like hyperinflation with unemployment and effects of different policies to attack them. It closes with a differentiation between classic and Keynesian policies.

    This technical note substitutes the previous one EC2-010 "El Modelo de Oferta y Demanda Agregadas" that is no longer available.

    Academic Area:
    Economic Environment
  4. POLÍTICA FISCAL Y MONETARIA Y MOVILIDAD DE CAPITALES … EC2-117

    Analyzes the relationship between the commodity and financial asset markets, going deep into the effect of monetary and fiscal policies separately, as well as the consequences of their simultaneous application. The second section goes into the interest rates between countries and the system of foreign exchange, whether fixed or flexible. It ends with an explanation of the risk premium of several countries.

    This technical note substitutes the previous ones EC2-008 "Los Mercados de Bienes y Activos: Las Políticas Fiscal y Monetaria" and EC2-009 "Las Políticas Fiscal y Monetaria en Economías Abiertas con Movimientos de Capitales" that are no longer available.

    Academic Area:
    Economic Environment
  5. BALANZA DE PAGOS, MERCADO DE DIVISAS Y COMPETITIVIDA … EC2-115

    This note details several details surrounding the foreign sector of the economy. It analyzes trade and current accounts, forex markets, trade policy, competitiveness and several theories about international trade. It also explains the reasons why countries trade, instruments of trade policy and what does being competitive mean.

    This technical note substitutes the previous ones EC2-004 "El Equilibrio de la Balanza de Pagos y su Significado Económico" and EC2-005 "El Mercado de Divisas y el Tipo de Cambio" that are no longer available.

    Academic Area:
    Economic Environment
  6. PARO, INFLACIÓN, DÉFICITS, COMPETITIVIDAD Y LARGO PL … EC2-119

    Explains the issues of the economic environment: unemployment, inflation, economic cycle, public and trade deficits and competitiveness. Also goes into some ideas about global financial crises, models used to exit them and some implications of the "new economy".

    This technical note substitutes the previous one EC2-011 "Inflación, Paro, Competitividad y el Largo Plazo" that is no longer available.

    Academic Area:
    Economic Environment
  7. DIRIGIENDO EMPRESAS EN ENTORNO GLOBALES. INTRODUCCIÓ … EC2-113

    This technical note is introductory to a course on the economic environment of businesses. It provides an overview of the main problems of the economic environment, some explanatory ideas and models and a first glance at the main macroeconomic issues: growth and the cycle, unemployment, inflation, public deficit and structural deficit. Some ideas on government intervention in the economy and the global economic environment are also presented.

    In the second part, the characteristics of the main models that are used in the analysis of the economic environment of businesses are presented and the main indicators of economic output are defined: income, expenditure, prices and population. We will start from the circular flow of income model, the version that distinguishes the goods market from the factory one as well as the macroeconomic adaptation that identifies the moment of expenditure, output and income. After defining the main variables, the various models that are usually used are briefly reviewed. Some concepts on the analysis of the datasets are provided before. At the end, a number of important clarifications are explained to avoid different economic concepts from being misunderstood.

    On the last pages, an overview of building the aggregate supply and aggregate demand model is provided. We will use it as the basis for understanding how the economy works as a whole.

    This technical note substitutes the previous ones EC2-001 "Entorno Económico: Dirigiendo Empresas en la Economía Global" and EC2-002 "Indicadores Económicos y Análisis de Coyuntura" that are no longer available.

    Academic Area:
    Economic Environment
  8. DINERO, BANCOS Y POLÍTICA MONETARIA EC2-116

    This note is about the workings of the assets market, the different types of assets and focusing on money, the role of commercial and central banks. It analyzes the assets and money markets and their influence over monetary policy and interest rates. Finally it explains the different models of monetary policy, the types of financial markets and the stock-market indicators.

    This technical note substitutes the previous ones EC2-006 "El Sistema Financiero y la Creación de Dinero" and EC2-007 "El Mercado de Activos" that are no longer available.

    Academic Area:
    Economic Environment
  9. QE Liquidity in search of profitability: the dilemma … EC1-135-I

    This case seeks two purposes. First, illustrating the relevance of the economic environment for determining business profitability. Second, putting in practice students acquired macroeconomic analytical skills by using them to support a real life financial investment decision. The students are asked to endorse one of two options, US or Brazil, for the launching of a new investment fund by FTInvest, a financial investment company. The recommendation is made by students acting as members of the Economic Research Department of the company. Therefore, it should be based on the country identified by them as providing the most favorable economic environment for the profitability of the investment in the medium/long run. The decision takes place in the second half of 2011, at a time when the US economy showed a hesitant recovery after the Great Global Recession of 2008 and when the Brazilian economy was booming after a very short blip. It was also at a time when, due to ultra-loose US monetary policy, interest rates and yields were at historical lows in the US while they were relatively high in Brazil.

    Academic Area:
    Economic Environment | Finance
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