Search results for: 'APR'
DIRIGIENDO EMPRESAS EN ENTORNO GLOBALES. INTRODUCCIÓ … EC2-113
This technical note is introductory to a course on the economic environment of businesses. It provides an overview of the main problems of the economic environment, some explanatory ideas and models and a first glance at the main macroeconomic issues: growth and the cycle, unemployment, inflation, public deficit and structural deficit. Some ideas on government intervention in the economy and the global economic environment are also presented.
In the second part, the characteristics of the main models that are used in the analysis of the economic environment of businesses are presented and the main indicators of economic output are defined: income, expenditure, prices and population. We will start from the circular flow of income model, the version that distinguishes the goods market from the factory one as well as the macroeconomic adaptation that identifies the moment of expenditure, output and income. After defining the main variables, the various models that are usually used are briefly reviewed. Some concepts on the analysis of the datasets are provided before. At the end, a number of important clarifications are explained to avoid different economic concepts from being misunderstood.
On the last pages, an overview of building the aggregate supply and aggregate demand model is provided. We will use it as the basis for understanding how the economy works as a whole.
This technical note substitutes the previous ones EC2-001 "Entorno Económico: Dirigiendo Empresas en la Economía Global" and EC2-002 "Indicadores Económicos y Análisis de Coyuntura" that are no longer available.Academic Area:Economic Environment
Japón 2010: Los años perdidos EC1-122
This case takes a look at the events that led up to the bursting of Japan’s stock-market bubble in 2010. It begins by describing the economic situation in Japan in the 1980s at the start of the crisis, delving into the appreciation of the yen, loss of competitiveness, low interest rates, the over-valuation of the stock market leading to inflation and the upward trend in the unemployment rate. It emphasizes that there were twenty years of poor political leadership where the political party changed frequently. The case outlines the government in Japan during the nineties and includes a detailed description of how each prime minister’s actions affected the economy. Then in 2001, seeking economic recovery, Koizumi’s government launched a comprehensive plan of reforms based on solving the problem of bad debts, establishing a stable financial system and defining seven programs of structural reform. When Koizumi left office, the economic situation was unstable and between 2006 and 2009, up to three different prime ministers occupied the post. Between 2007 and 2009, stimulus packages implemented by the government caused public debt as a percentage of Japan’s GDP to increase nearly 55 percent. This led the Bank of Japan to take emergency measures. In 2009, Hatoyama came into power, ending the Koizumi era. The government then had their chance to put an end to the “lost years.”Academic Area:Economic Environment
Gráfica de un mercado en competencia perfecta EC2-109-M
This interactive tool explains the adjustment in short and long term of the market and the enterprise under the theory of perfect competition. It allows for the interaction of both dimensions and to see the equilibrium process in terms of profits losses prices and exchanged quantities.
The documentation includes graphs with explanations of the shifts as well as exercises with feedback.Academic Area:Economic Environment
Portugal: Los desequilibrios económicos EC1-120
This case investigates how drastic changes in politics within short periods of time in Portugal in the 70s and 80s didn’t help the country grow but instead helped it to sink further into poverty as well as how after gaining a small amount of stability the country’s situation started to improve the economic indicators. In this case students will learn to see that the majority of times extreme changes in a country’s politics only make it further worsen with every change until a point of stability is reached.Academic Area:Economic Environment
La economía estadounidense: caso de estudio EC1-108
Beyond a doubt, the United States raises stronger passions and more defined opinions than any country in the world. Whether it is because of its economic success, its role as a military superpower, its predominant position in world events, its impact on world cultures through the entertainment industry, or for other reasons, nearly everyone appears to have an opinion regarding the U.S. And these opinions are often poorly informed.
This case attempts to fill the gap in information on the U.S. by giving a quick historical introduction and a broad modern-day approximation to the world’s largest economy. It addresses many of the stereotypes popularly associated with the U.S. and provides data to critically evaluate these stereotypes. The discussion will inevitably lead to the rejection of many popular stereotypes, both popular and negative, and to a deeper understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the world’s economic giant and business leader.Academic Area:Economic Environment
Simulador de políticas económicas EC1-022-M
Beginning with the details of an unnamed country this interactive exercise lets students combine various economic policies to analyze their future impact (in the following two years) on the main macroeconomic indicators. The results and feedback given to students are expressed numerically and graphically.
Students also have access to the results of the combination of policies used throughout the exercise so that they can be compared. Said results can be printed for subsequent discussion.Academic Area:Economic Environment
Gráfico interactivo de un mercado competitivo EC2-029-M
The purpose of this interactive tutorial is to help students learn and comprehend the effect of changes in the variables of supply and demand in a microeconomic market assuming perfect competition. Students can interact with both curves and see the equilibrium process in terms of prices and quantities exchanged. The program assumes that students are familiar with the underlying concepts of the graphic representation of a market with perfect competition.
For a better understanding of the main effects of the changes in the curves this graphic resource allows students to make only one move per curve and does not envisage changes in the curves´ elasticity. Students can interact with both curves (demand and supply) either separately or jointly. There are also simple exercises that enable students to test their comprehension of how the market works and check their answers through interaction with the graph.Academic Area:Economic Environment
Gráfico interactivo de políticas de demanda agregada … EC2-026-M
This is an interactive tutorial that allows students to see the effect of changes in monetary and fiscal aggregate demand policies on the adjustment of the goods and services and asset markets.
The tool assumes that students have already studied the concepts underlying the adjustment processes of the goods and services market and the asset market. For a better understanding of the main effects of monetary and fiscal policies on the overall adjustment of both markets this graphic resource does not envisage simultaneous execution of both policies nor their effects on capital movements and exchange rates. The tool also contains some simple exercises that enable students to contrast their answers by using the interactive graph.Academic Area:Economic Environment
Gráfico interactivo del tipo de cambio EC2-028-M
This interactive tool enables students to understand the impact of exchange rate fluctuations on the foreign exchange market in the short term. Students can interact with the variables of the currency demand and supply curves and see the effect on the exchange rate. This can be used by students on their own or by teachers to support their explanations in the classroom.
This interactive material enables students to learn and grasp the cause-effect relation of the variables that affect currency supply and demand and their impact on exchange rates in the short term. It assumes that they already know the theoretical concepts underlying the determination and adjustment of exchange rates. This resource also contains some exercises to test students’ comprehension of how the currency demand and supply curves work and cross-check their answers via the graph.Academic Area:Economic Environment