Architecture

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  1. Positioning: a key factor in marketing strategy MK2-105-I

    The technical note explains the importance of the positioning strategy of the brands within the general marketing strategy of a product or a company. It also describes and analyzes the positioning as a phase in the Marketing process, the advantages of a good positioning and the common mistakes marketers run into when positioning a brand. It emphasizes segmentation as a tool for the positioning strategy.

    This material is details the process of development of the positioning and its phases. It explains stages of market definition, market segmentation, reasons for segmenting or not segmenting, segmentation criteria and differentiation.

    Academic Area:
    Marketing & Communications
  2. Consumers' purchasing behavior MK2-107-I

    This document summarizes the concepts and basic processes involved in consumer behavior, emphasizing how understanding consumers' needs benefits both consumers and marketers. Understanding consumer behavior can allow companies to develop a commercial strategy that is better matched to consumers, which will increase demand and optimize the means to generate that demand. Some of the main challenges are the variability of behavior, its changing nature, and the complexities of studying it. The note delves into how consumer behavior can be studied in a systematic and precise way by using a wide range of theoretical approaches and models and how it can be affected by factors such as environmental influences (economic, political, technological and cultural context) and marketing actions. The document outlines the various psychological factors involved in decision-making (personality, lifestyles, beliefs and attitudes, motivation, perception and learning) as well as the non-psychological ones (age, sex, location, etc.) which allow the marketer to better understand the consumers’ buying habits. It explains the basic decision-making model in depth and how consumers’ behaviors can play an active role in generating value for the company or the opposite thanks to undesired behaviors such as boycotts, complaints and negative word of mouth. It wraps up by describing how to move consumers from habit buying to decision making.

    Academic Area:
    Marketing & Communications
  3. Product strategy: portfolio management concepts, typ … MK2-106-I

    This note introduces readers to concepts about products. It explains various definitions of what a product is, emphasizing that products are not what the producer wants them to be but how the consumer perceives them. It looks at the value hierarchy for the customer and the levels of the product (core benefit, generic product, expected product, augmented product and potential product) and then goes on to explain its physical and psychological attributes. Next, it delves into the brand emphasizing that it is one of the key elements of the commercial strategy used for products and a valuable strategic asset and then takes a look at the brand identity. Using Nike as a practical example, it introduces readers to the hierarchy of benefits and how to use the brand’s attributes to identify the final identity of the brand. It describes the differences between consumer goods, industrial goods and services and also talks about how to manage a portfolio of products using Procter & Gamble and Pantene as an example. Then it describes the stages of the product market life cycle and how it is essential for any company that wishes to remain profitable over the long term to develop new products. Looking at the Ansoff Matrix, readers are introduced to four different strategies regarding products and markets. Lastly, the note explains the BCG growth/relative market share matrix to show how to determine the strategic situation of a company’s products/markets and the AC matrix to determine the attractiveness and competitiveness of a market.

    Academic Area:
    Marketing & Communications
  4. ANALYZING THE NONMARKET ENVIRONMENT OF BUSINESS:THE … DE2-114-I

    This technical note introduces a framework for analyzing the nonmarket enviornment of business, i.e. the social, political, regulatory and legal context in which the firm operates.

    Academic Area:
    Strategy | Entrepreneurship | Marketing & Communications
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