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  1. THE COST OF CAPITAL DF2-141-I

    This material focuses on determining the rate of return that will satisfy shareholders’ expectations and how to achieve it. It explains how to find the discount rate that represents the cost of the resources that will finance future investments and how to figure out the cost, or the WACC, by weighting the cost of debt and equity as a function of their relative importance in the company’s capital structure. In addition, it covers how to calculate the cost of debt based on the Gordon-Shapiro share pricing model and based on Sharpe’s asset valuation model using real-life examples and historical data. The case stresses that the manager must know how to add value to the investment; shareholders are entrusting the manager with their investment and expecting a higher rate of return than they could get without him. It wraps up by including an FAQ on WACC.

    Academic Area:
    Finance
  2. RATING AGENCIES PROCESS: HOW TO DEAL WITH THIS NECES … DF2-223-I

    Undoubtedly, obtaining a credit rating is one of the paramount decisions for any company to make during its entire existence as a going concern. From that moment on, not only will its corporate status be deeply modified bringing about a number of new additional requirements to comply with. Its overall relationships with its stakeholders will no longer be the same. Even the potential decision to turn back to the prior situation by relinquishing its rating and becoming unrated again, which is perfectly possible, will have meaningful implications going forward.

    This technical note is addressed to those enrolled in the Global Masters in Finance (GMIF) programs, particularly in connection with the “Introduction to the Capital Markets” subject. This paper also directly relates to all other subjects covering corporate finance and financing issues in the same program, as well as to the MBA programs and specialized finance courses.   

    Academic Area:
    Finance
  3. DETERMINING THE OPTIMAL CAPITAL STRUCTURE FOR A FIRM DF2-220-I

    The aim of this technical note is to provide the tools necessary to determine a firm’s optimal capital structure so that the financing function of the company contributes to creating value for shareholders. Finally, it summarizes the factors that should guide finance directors during the transition from their current financial structure to an optimal one.

    Academic Area:
    Finance
  4. Accounting as a source of Information for financiers DF2-162-I

    The general accounts are a useful tool for the company and are intended as a source of information. This information has to follow a set of rules and principles and must be recorded using the principle of double-entry bookkeeping. The finance department’s guiding principle is to "maximize the long-term economic value for shareholders." To generate economic value in the long term, the returns obtained from management of the assets in the normal course of business must exceed the financial cost of the resources funding them.

    This technical note explains how concepts of accounting are particularly useful to obtain certain financial information. It talks about general accounting and its guiding principles, the profit and loss account, the balance sheet, accounting statements, liabilities, equity, assets, accounting records, depreciation, provisions, investment and financing decisions and finally cash flows, weighted average cost of capital and discounted cash flow.

    Academic Area:
    Financial Accounting | Finance
  5. FINANCIAL FORECASTS DF2-105-I

    This tutorial gives a step-by-step look at how a company’s future plans are quantified through financial forecasts and explains the purpose and importance of forecasts. It emphasizes that although many people are overwhelmed when it comes to financial forecasts, it is something that must be dealt with and is a tool that financial professionals will never stop using. It explains how students must look at the company’s history and then create the balance sheet and P&L accounts for future years. To do so, it provides past financial results for Ártica and describes what has been happening with its sales, operating costs, expenses, etc. in recent years. It walks students through how to analyze the company’s accounts and then provides steps so that students can create a financial forecast. It demonstrates how you can create an optimistic forecast but also how you must imagine alternatives where things do not go well.

    Academic Area:
    Finance
  6. What does the financial viewpoint contribute to a bu … DF2-207-I

    This technical note (TN) explains in detail the tools that can be used to analyze the financial feasibility and profitability of a business decision. Firstly, the TN emphasizes that managers must understand financial statements and their limitations. The statements do not aim to tell all the "truth" about the business; they aim to offer a reasonably honest approximation to certain aspects of it. Using Valparaiso SL as an example, readers are walked through an analysis of the profit and loss account and the balance sheet. The TN stresses that judging how well a company is managed solely on the basis of the information in the profit and loss account may lead us to form an incorrect view of what is going on in the company. Then the company’s profitability, funds flow and liquidity are analyzed and explained. Next, the cash flow statement is shown and readers learn that there are a number of different formats in which the information shown in the cash flow statement can be presented. The case wraps up by explaining that the criterion to judge whether a company is well-managed consists of analyzing its feasibility (measured in terms of the generation of net liquidity) and its profitability in real or financial terms. In sum, it is necessary to know what information is provided by the company's accounting statements, how this information relates to the business reality and what is or is not important for generating sustainable profitability.

    Academic Area:
    Finance
  7. How to analyze the economic feasibility of a busines … DF2-209-I

    This technical note takes a look at the feasibility of a joint venture, UTE Construmás, which was set up to build a parking lot. Readers must figure out how much money they need in order for the joint venture to be feasible and what financial resources must be provided over Construmás’s lifetime. In order to do so, the case walks readers through six stages to analyze its economic viability: establishing the time horizon of the forecast, determining the assumptions for the forecast, deriving the forecast profit and loss statement for the company, calculating the balance sheet associated with the forecast profit and loss statement, deducing the forecast cash flow situation, and drawing conclusions. Readers are provided with details and financial information for each stage. After going through the stages, a conclusion is reached about building the parking lot through a join venture and its profitability from an accounting point of view. However, it must also cover a peak liquidity requirement which cannot be solved by increasing turnover.

    Academic Area:
    Finance
  8. INVESTING WITH TALENT DF2-123-I

    This material, which is introduced with a biblical parable comparing today’s shareholders and managers to the protagonists of the parable, explores different alternatives to invest investors’ wealth. It explains the theoretical underpinnings of investing with talent and emphasizes that the manager must make investments that increase the investors’ wealth more than they could do on their own. Using the example of the Gemini project, the case walks students through the methods frequently used by finance directors to figure out if the Gemini project or an alternative would be the most profitable. To do so, it covers forecasts, free cash flow on operations, future value, NPV, IRR and ARR and then wraps up by analyzing the Gemini Project by applying the various methods.

    Academic Area:
    Finance
  9. MATHEMATICS AND FINANCE DF2-122-I

    Using practical examples and mathematical formulas, the tutorial explains how to calculate the interest rate, how to use the future value formula, how to calculate how much contracts are worth based on investment rates, what compound interest is, and how to calculate the value of any asset. It also looks at the distinction between value and price and how both are determined. It emphasizes that wealth does not depend on how much we paid for something but on how much money it is going to produce in the future and how the value of an asset does not depend on its face value but on the income you expect to get from it in the future. Quotes and examples from the Bible, philosophers and economists are included throughout the text so students understand that interest is something that has been around for a long time, even before money existed.

    Academic Area:
    Finance
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