Economic Environment & Public Affairs

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  1. DIRIGIENDO EMPRESAS EN ENTORNO GLOBALES. INTRODUCCIÓ … EC2-113

    This technical note is introductory to a course on the economic environment of businesses. It provides an overview of the main problems of the economic environment, some explanatory ideas and models and a first glance at the main macroeconomic issues: growth and the cycle, unemployment, inflation, public deficit and structural deficit. Some ideas on government intervention in the economy and the global economic environment are also presented.

    In the second part, the characteristics of the main models that are used in the analysis of the economic environment of businesses are presented and the main indicators of economic output are defined: income, expenditure, prices and population. We will start from the circular flow of income model, the version that distinguishes the goods market from the factory one as well as the macroeconomic adaptation that identifies the moment of expenditure, output and income. After defining the main variables, the various models that are usually used are briefly reviewed. Some concepts on the analysis of the datasets are provided before. At the end, a number of important clarifications are explained to avoid different economic concepts from being misunderstood.

    On the last pages, an overview of building the aggregate supply and aggregate demand model is provided. We will use it as the basis for understanding how the economy works as a whole.

    This technical note substitutes the previous ones EC2-001 "Entorno Económico: Dirigiendo Empresas en la Economía Global" and EC2-002 "Indicadores Económicos y Análisis de Coyuntura" that are no longer available.

    Academic Area:
    Economic Environment & Public Affairs
  2. BALANZA DE PAGOS, MERCADO DE DIVISAS Y COMPETITIVIDA … EC2-115

    This note details several details surrounding the foreign sector of the economy. It analyzes trade and current accounts, forex markets, trade policy, competitiveness and several theories about international trade. It also explains the reasons why countries trade, instruments of trade policy and what does being competitive mean.

    This technical note substitutes the previous ones EC2-004 "El Equilibrio de la Balanza de Pagos y su Significado Económico" and EC2-005 "El Mercado de Divisas y el Tipo de Cambio" that are no longer available.

    Academic Area:
    Economic Environment & Public Affairs
  3. POLÍTICA FISCAL Y MONETARIA Y MOVILIDAD DE CAPITALES … EC2-117

    Analyzes the relationship between the commodity and financial asset markets, going deep into the effect of monetary and fiscal policies separately, as well as the consequences of their simultaneous application. The second section goes into the interest rates between countries and the system of foreign exchange, whether fixed or flexible. It ends with an explanation of the risk premium of several countries.

    This technical note substitutes the previous ones EC2-008 "Los Mercados de Bienes y Activos: Las Políticas Fiscal y Monetaria" and EC2-009 "Las Políticas Fiscal y Monetaria en Economías Abiertas con Movimientos de Capitales" that are no longer available.

    Academic Area:
    Economic Environment & Public Affairs
  4. PARO, INFLACIÓN, DÉFICITS, COMPETITIVIDAD Y LARGO PL … EC2-119

    Explains the issues of the economic environment: unemployment, inflation, economic cycle, public and trade deficits and competitiveness. Also goes into some ideas about global financial crises, models used to exit them and some implications of the "new economy".

    This technical note substitutes the previous one EC2-011 "Inflación, Paro, Competitividad y el Largo Plazo" that is no longer available.

    Academic Area:
    Economic Environment & Public Affairs
  5. LA DEMANDA AGREGADA Y LA POLÍTICA FISCAL EC2-114

    Explains the model of aggregate demand, fiscal policy, income, expenditures and production.

    It offers a simplistic model to determine production and income. The technical note assumes the learner understands the circular flow diagram and basic macroeconomic identities. The model is created starting from aggregate demand and considers families' consumption and investment of the private sector. Then introduces the public sector, along with some concepts of fiscal policy. It ends with the foreign sector and its implications for income.

    This technical note substitutes the previous ones EC2-003 "Los Componentes de la Demanda Agregada y la Renta de Equilibrio" and EC2-015 that are no longer available.

    Academic Area:
    Economic Environment & Public Affairs
  6. DINERO, BANCOS Y POLÍTICA MONETARIA EC2-116

    This note is about the workings of the assets market, the different types of assets and focusing on money, the role of commercial and central banks. It analyzes the assets and money markets and their influence over monetary policy and interest rates. Finally it explains the different models of monetary policy, the types of financial markets and the stock-market indicators.

    This technical note substitutes the previous ones EC2-006 "El Sistema Financiero y la Creación de Dinero" and EC2-007 "El Mercado de Activos" that are no longer available.

    Academic Area:
    Economic Environment & Public Affairs
  7. LA OFERTA Y LA DEMANDA AGREGADAS EC2-118

    Offers the full model of aggregate supply and demand, starting with an economy of four sectors (families, companies, public sector and foreign sector) and three markets (commodities, assets and labor). Explains current economic issues like hyperinflation with unemployment and effects of different policies to attack them. It closes with a differentiation between classic and Keynesian policies.

    This technical note substitutes the previous one EC2-010 "El Modelo de Oferta y Demanda Agregadas" that is no longer available.

    Academic Area:
    Economic Environment & Public Affairs
  8. Caso Japón EC1-134-M

    This interactive case study combines data that is publicly available in Google Data with questions for the students so they can reflect on the policies of Japan that affect their economic development.

    The idea is that students can understand the liquidity trap (how low interest rates end up making the monetary policy useless), what can be expected of growth when it is based on debt, some of the structural limits to growth (like aging population and technology) and the importance of political stability in the growth process.

    The context for the case is a meeting where the finance ministry of Japan calls on the class (who role play as consultants) to help them understand the situation. The information offered includes embedded content from google data that the students can navigate through different graphs organized to depict many of the main economic variables and relevant relations between them, and is combined with research questions to ensure active student participation. It also has a professor's page that will include additional information on several events related to social, economic and political events that affect the aforementioned variables, as well as a place to display the student's answers, that may be hand-picked if desired.

    An advantage of using Google Data for this case is the fact that the information is kept permanently up-to-date

    Academic Area:
    Economic Environment & Public Affairs
  9. Pharma Supplies EC1-123

    The case talks about how a SME of the pharmaceutical industry decides to expand to international markets. It particularly decides to export a value-added product to Estonia: Semi automatic external defibrillators.

    Academic Area:
    Economic Environment & Public Affairs | Strategy
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